Turpentine Oil - Overview

turpentine oil in bottle

Turpentine (also called spirit of turpentine, oil of turpentine, wood turpentine, gum turpentine) is a fluid obtained by the distillation of resin obtained from trees, mainly pine trees. It is composed of terpenes, mainly the monoterpenes alpha-pinene and beta-pinene. Hence, it has a potent odor similar to that of nail polish remover. Although sometimes known colloquially as turfs, this more often refers to turpentine substitute (or mineral turpentine).

Gum Turpentine Oil Process

Manufacturing Process

This chemical is not a pure substance but a complex mixture of terpenes, particularly large proportion of pinene (bicyclic monoterpenic hydrocarbon), a compound from which camphor is manufactured. Terpene is a class of naturally occurring unsaturated hydrocarbons whose carbon skeletons are composed exclusively of isoprene C5 units (CH2=C(CH3)-CH=CH2). The stepwise distillation with water and carbonates yields terpenes. The water solubility of turpentine oil is negligible. But it is miscible in absolute alcohol and ether. With boils at about 155 – 185 C and its specific gravity is ranged from 0.86 to 088. Dissolves sulphur, phosphorus and resins. This product is used chiefly as a solvent in paints, vanishes and waxes, and in making camphor, inks and other products.

Application Material of Gum Turpentine Oil For Industrial

Turpentine Oil Applications

The two primary turpentine oil applications in industry are as a solvent and as a source of materials for organic synthesis

The Application

Gum Turpentine Oil derived from pine trees was fractionally distilled, and the materials distilling below A-pinene and/or above B-pinene were separated. The gum turpentine oil used in this investigation were the first (richer in forerum) and last (richer in tailings) portions, respectively, of commercial distillations of gum.

The application of gum turpentine oil is categorized into four uses: solvent, source of organic compounds, medicinal elixir, and niche. The solvent industry is usually applied to paints and coatings, solvents in inks, cosmetic products, cleaning products, healthcare, and automotive solvents. Industrial Source of Organic Compounds is usually applied to Camphor, Linalool, Alpha-Terpineol, and Geraniol. Industrial Medicinal Elixir is usually used for Abrasions and Wounds, Lice Medicinal, Chest Rub, Nasal Medicinal, and Throat Ailments. Niche industry is usually used for Cleaning and Sanitary, Whale Oil Substitution, Fueled Substitution, Gin Craze, and Drive The Iodine


Common NameTurpentine Oil
CAS No.8006-64-2
FormulaC10H16 (Pinene)
Molecular Weight136.24 g mol-1
H.S Code3805.10.00
SynonymsPinene Isomers Mixture, Spirits of Turpentine, Terpene, Dipanol, Oil of Turpentine


Contentalpha-PINENE 40 – 55% + beta-PINENE 40 – 55% + Others 5-10%
Specific Gravity0.860 – 0.875
Acidity0.5% max
Distillation Range155 – 185 C
Optical Rotation-25° ~ -31°
Water0.5% max
Color (Apha)35 max


CountryAlpha PineneBeta PineneA + B